Category Archives: Orthopedic injuries and conditions

These articles describe various orthopedic injuries and conditions that biokinetics can assist with. The section provides info on related anatomy, what can go wrong and how exercise therapy can help.

Kids' therapy

Biokinetics for the Low Muscle Tone Child

Muscle tone refers to the stiffness, or tone, of muscles. The various postural muscles of the body (supporting the spine and pelvis i.e. the trunk) are crucially important in helping us sit up properly and adjust our body position while we carry out daily activities. In children this becomes especially important as weakness in these trunk muscles can stunt development and lead to learning and concentration problems.

Some neurological conditions create low muscle tone due to areas of the brain being affected in-utero, during or after birth. These children generally need therapeutic intervention early on and may require years of exercise therapy to help correctly stimulate the brain and body to function as well as possible. However, more common, is low muscle tone from disuse: children are not as active anymore and so these muscles do not have a chance to develop and strengthen the way they should.

Exercise is fun

Parents also need to help out with home therapy programs for best results

This can lead to critical developmental milestones being delayed (such as crawling, sitting up and walking) or if the child is already entering a school environment they may battle to concentrate on their lessons as their trunk muscles are unable to keep them sitting up – the resulting slouched posture interferes with concentration and therefore learning. These children will need occupational and exercise therapy to correct the muscle tone and help them catch up to their peers and age-appropriate motor ability.

Biokinetics can assist the low muscle tone child alongside their occupational therapy by providing stimulating exercises which can be done at home as well to develop as much strength as possible. Swimming is often a great activity as it requires the use of entire body’s muscles plus motor coordination to correctly achieve a buoyant body position and stroke pattern. I usually combine swimming teaching with hydrotherapy when dealing with children in the pool: children learn best through play and positive reinforcement i.e. if they are having fun and don’t even notice the session is about therapy then their hard work does not feel like hard work and they are rewarded through praise and having fun.

Water therapy and exercise

Children have fun while gaining important motor skills in the pool

Aquatic therapy

Water is a great place for kids to become stronger


Pictures used from 10 Uses for an Exercise Ball with Children found on  and The Aquatic Therapist from
Low back pain

Biokinetics for low back pain

Low back pain is becoming more common among individuals of all ages, gender and activity levels. The most common cause of non-specific low back pain is weak core stabilising muscles and poor posture ².

The spine is made up of 33 individual bones called vertebra: 7 cervical vertebra of the neck. 12 thoracic vertebra of the trunk, 5 lumbar vertebra of the lower back and 9 fused vertebrae of the sacrum ¹. The vertebrae form a protective tunnel around the spinal cord from the brain down to the sacrum. Nerves exit the side of each vertebra to innervate specific areas of the body; these nerves can be found next to bone, muscle and ligaments ¹.

Spine anatomy

Structures of the spine

Vertebral discs are located in between each of the vertebra of the spine to act as shock absorbers during the force distribution the body experiences while we move about. There are also many ligaments and muscles running along the spine to support it and keep it aligned correctly ¹.

If there is an injury to any of the joints in the vertebrae or inflammation, this creates dysfunction – an interruption in the correct function of each muscle and joint in the spine. Most often this translates into muscle spasm and pain; because of this pain we tend to try avoiding using the affected muscle which in turn leads to disuse atrophy ³. The affected muscle becomes deactivated and unable to fulfil its function correctly, which in turn puts even more pressure on the other muscles and structures of the spine leading to further pain and dysfunction ³.

Biokinetics use the science of movement and exercise to find exactly which muscles need to be strengthened and which stretched in order to prescribe an exercise program to target these muscles and create a better balance between supporting muscles (the core) and the rest of the body. Exercises include flexibility work: stretching hamstrings, gluteals, quadriceps, muscles along the spine. Flexibility will improve the muscles’ ability to move more and thus allow the joints on either side to move better as well. Better movement leads to less pain and inflammation ². Strength work usually begins with self-awareness: being able to locate the deep core muscles, these include the pelvic floor muscles (Kegal exercises), the erector spinae and multifidi muscle groups alongside the spine and the gluteal muscles. Teaching the brain to activate these muscles is the first step in improving spinal stability so that all other movements have a strong foundation to work from ².

Most individuals feel a significant improvement within a few sessions of starting biokinetics if there are no other underlying conditions (these will be discussed in more detail in other posts).
References used in this article

  1. Hamilton, N. & Luttgens, K. (2002). Kinesiology. Scientific Basis of Human Motion. [10th ed.] McGraw Hill.
  2. Houglam, P.A. (2005). Therapeutic Exercise for Muscoluskeletal Injuries [2nd ed.] Human Kinetics.
  3. Ulrich, P.F. (n.d.). Back Muscles and Low Back Pain. Retrieved on 5 January 2016 from